Yves Trudeau received his training at the École des beaux-arts de Montréal. In 1960, he was one of the founders of the Association des sculpteurs du Québec, which later became the Conseil de la sculpture du Québec. He taught at Université du Québec à Montréal, and his works have been presented in numerous solo and group exhibitions. The Côte-Vertu Métro station, inaugurated in 1986, contains his artwork Relief, négatif positif, consisting of two stainless-steel murals.
Yves Trudeau is a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and became a member of the Order of Canada in 1995.